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Modern methods of microstructure research trough computer materials science using applied technology

Povstyanoy Oleksandr, Kuts Yuliya
Lutsk National Technical University, Lutsk, Ukraine

Field: Technical Sciences
Title: Modern methods of microstructure research trough computer materials science using applied technology
Paper Type: Research Paper
City, Country: Lutsk, Ukraine
Authors: O. Povstyanoy, Y. Kuts
Microstructure, Computer materials science, Porous material, Visualization
A complex analysis of the research modern methods of porous penetrating material
microstructures is given. It is shown from the analysis of modern literary sources
that macroscopic behavior and topology of surface directly depend on the features
of its microstructure. Therefore measuring and control of properties of initial powders
and finish goods by modern facilities and software are an important factor for making
high-efficiency and progressive porous penetrating materials.
Possibilities and estimation of modern software are shown for computer facilities of
research at processing of metallography images of different sort of materials. It was
revealed that the study of possibilities and modern software for computer facilities of
research of metallography images with the purpose of determination of quality and
quantitative descriptions of materials is dictated by scientific and production tasks that
arose up in the modern science of materials.
In this article it is well-proven that presented modern software products for the analysis
of micro images are a universal instrument for the quality analysis of image of porous
penetrating material microstructures in science and production.
The given methods of non-destructive and rapid control that determine and analyze the
changes of material structure can be successfully used as an instrument of control of
quality of the off-the-shelf product.
  1. Belov S, Vutiaz P, Sheleg V (1987) Porous permeable materials. Metallurgy, Moscow.
  2. Bodla D, Murthy M, Garimella A (2010) Microtomography-based simulation of transport through open-cell metal foams. Numer Heat Transfer Part A; 524:527.
  3. Boukhair D, Haessler R, Nourreddine A (2000) New code for digital imaging system for track measurements. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 160: 550–555.
  4. Kereig L (1996) Practical image processing in C. World, Moskov.
  5. Feldkamp D, Davis A, Kress E (1997) Practical cone beam algorithm J. Microsc. 185: 67–75.
  6. Mandelbrot A (1982) The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Freeman, San-Francisco.
  7. Andersson A, Holmquist F, Lindquist P, Nilsson W (2000) Analysis of film coating thickness and surface area of pharmaceutical pellets using fluorescence microscopy and image analysis, J. Pharm. Biomed. 22: 325–339.
  8. Maziyk A, Pulunevuch P, Rak D, Savuch S, Tymulovuch A(2005) Porous powder materials with anisotropic pore structure for the filtration of liquids and gases. Tonpik, Minsk.
  9. Povstyanoy O, Zabolotnuy O, Chmil I (2004) Computer methods in metallographic analysis with applications.Scientific notes, Luck. 15: 244-25.
  10. Pytianin A, Averun I (1990) Image processing in robotics. Mechanical Engineering, Moskov.
  11. Serra S (1992) Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology. Academic Press, London.
  12. Stampfl S, Scherer E, Gruber D, Kolednik W (1996) Determination of the fracture toughness with automatic image processing. Int. J. Frac., V.2–44: 119-121.
  13. Stas S, Gavruliyk I (2000) Computer methods in metallographic analysis. Research methods and quality control of metals: V.2: 48—52.
  14. Vutiaz P (1987) Porous powder materials and their products. Higher School, Minsk.
  15. Whitehouse A (1994) Handbook of Surface Metrology. Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia.
  16. Zhang W, Marshall H (1998) A universal algorithm for fast and automated charge state deconvolution of electrospray mass-to-charge ratio spectra. J. Am.Soc. Mass Spec.:V. 9: 225–233.
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  1. Introduction.

Swift development of the computing engineering and methods of the digital processing of images gave an opportunity considerably to extend automation of research works in many areas of SciTech lately. Macroscopic behavior of material directly depends on the features of his microstructure. Quantitative approach in analyzing allows to educe the optimal structure that fits the terms of service of material the best.

On the other hand, the successful decision of basic tasks of development of the world nowadays is determined by the increase of competitiveness of products produced. It pulls out rigorisms to the cleanness of materials, liquid and gaseous working environments of technological processes, reliability and longevity of work of machines, devices and etc. (Vutiaz 1987).

Powder metallurgy demonstrates advantages that allow to get materials with the best or very new qualities, or to make wares most economical by an advantageous method. Such wares are porous penetrating materials (PPM) which is used practically in all branches of industry (Whitehouse 1994).

Creation and development of new, highly-efficient PPM is impossible without measuring and control of properties of initial powders and ready goods. PPM is characterized by the row of structural and operating parameters which usually, are determined by qualities of initial powders and technology of their production. Porosity, its distribution on the PPM, its kind (open, closed, dead-locked); form, sizes of pores (middle and maximal), coefficient of sinuosity of pores; coefficient of regularity of porous structure; penetrating coefficient; specific surface; mechanical durability, corrosive firmness and others. Can be named as important descriptions of PPM (Belov 1987).

  1. Analysis of the last researches and publications.

 

Study of structural descriptions of PPM is one of the key tasks of modern learn of materials on the basis of which the process of creation of new and improvement of properties of already existent materials is based. Realization of high-quality metallography analysis is related to the known difficulties that are determined by large by physical load on the organism of researcher (in particular organs of sight), subjectivity of supervisions and small speed of research process. Application of devices, that work on the basis of linear mechanical involute of optical objects brings in the limits on interpretation of signals that turn out, and also deprives possibilities of “intellectual” interference with the process of measuring (Pytianin 1990;  Lindly Kereig 1996].

So as small changes at an analysis and processing of images have large influence on the further fate of finished product, the methods of non-destructive and rapid control, that determine and analyse these changes, can be successfully used as an instrument of control of product quality (Andersson 2000).

The study of possibilities and estimation of modern software for computer facilities of research of metallography images with the aim of determination of quality and quantitative descriptions of PPM is dictated by scientific and productive tasks that arose up in modern learn of materials.

Metallography images can be presented by combination of various structural constituents at different correlation: by phases, that are characterized by various sizes, form and color, and also by the limits of grains that can be presented or by separate lines dark-and-light, or to cover an image a continuous net. Combination of these structural constituents can give a very complicated picture, to interprete which program that analyses must own a great enough part of rightness of implementation. Therefore the basic requirement to the quality analysis of images can be set forth and put so: on the photo got under a microscope it is necessary to distinguish structural constituents, and after it to classify them on brightness, size and form. Practical realization of this point includes such tasks which have already become classic, as segmentation, filtration of defects and selection of objects from a background, determination of limits of objects, recognition of patterns (Stas 2000). For successful realization of metallography analysis the basic are complicated question remains in reliability of image segmentation. As far as metallography images are complicated there is not a single possibility to define descriptions of objects in good time. Therefore a process of segmentation must be adaptive and if possible to distinguish all objects of interest regardless of their sizes or brightness. Thus there must be possibility of intervention from an operator in the process of recognition, at least for the correction of object (Mandelbrot 1982).

That is why volume, study and perfection of metallography methods and computer facilities for measuring, analysis, determination, treatment, and prognostication of properties and structure of PPM are an actual and practical task.

  1. Statement of research objectives

 

  • describe for the metallography analysis of “PHOTOM”, “OPTIMAS”, “VIDEOTEST”, “IMAGE EXPERT PRO”, ” AVIZO”, “SMART – EYE®
  • Possibilities and evaluation of advanced software tools for computer research in the processing of metallographic images.
  1. Results.

 

The modern stage of development of software is characterized together with the increase of functionality and such tendencies, as:

 

  • Its simplicity in exploitation;
  • Increase of the productivity by the system itself;
  • Decline of requirements to the professional level of the user.

Today there are many various application programs for the analysis of images. Products that are the simplest in exploitation become the most successful.

Taking into account functional possibilities among the variety of software for the analysis of images the most successful are the next application programs – “PHOTOM”, “OPTIMAS”, “VIDEOTEST”, “IMAGE EXPERT PRO”, ” AVIZO”, “SMART-EYE® and many others.

In the arsenal of these programs there are all the algorithms which are needed for processing of technical images (Povstyanoy 2004). They are high-frequency and low-frequency filtration, selection of limits of images, arithmetic and logical operations, brightness/contrast correction and others. In this case treatment of image is sent not to the improvement of visual perception, but on his preparation to the further analysis.

In the arsenal of these modern programs there are all the algorithms are needed for processing of technical images (Bodla 2010; Feldkamp 1997): high-frequency and low-frequency filtration, selection of limits of images, arithmetic and logical operations, correction brightness/contrast and others. Treatment of image in this case is focused not on the improvement of visual perception, but on his preparation to the further analysis.

On the basis of analysis of mentioned above algorithms these programs allow to calculate the average brightness of every object according to the brightness scale, fixed in the systems. By means of this chart in all application programs of this specific the next sequence of algorithms is offered to treat and obtain descriptions of metallography structure:

  1. Filtration of image with the aim of exception of casual noise.
  2. Previous segmentation focused on the selection of homogeneous areas.
  3. Correction of object with the aim of determination of its threshold of brightness.
  4. Final segmentation with the use of the defined base-line value, that allows to fully define objects.
  5. Analysis of the distinguished objects with the aim of determination of their parameters.

It follows to consider statistical treatment of the descriptions of objects, determination of mean values of these sizes got in the process of measuring the eventual task of metallography analysis, and also construction of graphic dependences for visualization of process of analysis.

The easiest in use and determination of these descriptions there is the program “PHOTOM”, that is intended for photometry. Loading of black and white images comes true in format .BMP and .JPG. This program carries out the calculation of absorbency of photos, that settles accounts taking into the consideration background both in the medium (on the distinguished area) and in the separate photo (Picture 1).

Picture.1 Generate of binary image and construction of histograms of analysis of structure to the micro section of porous penetrating material got from powder of steel of BBS15

Picture.1 Generate of binary image and construction of histograms of analysis of structure to the micro section of porous penetrating material got from powder of steel of BBS15

Besides the calculation of absorbency it is possible to invert, to increase the contrast and smooth out an image, generate a binary image, determine distances between objects and carry out the calculation of the necessary area in the photo. Moreover there is also provided mode of calibration to count all coordinates in metrical units (microns).

The analyzer of images of “OPTIMAS” is an soba integration of modern methods on processing of images created on the basis of powerful mathematical methods tested in practice. A wide row of unique functions and methods of work is worked out specially for this program. Two control panels are created: standard tuning and tuning of user. The standard tuning gives button access to treatment of file, clipboard and printing actions; tuning of user allows to appoint up to twenty other macro instructions to the panels of user. There is an automatic threshold for multiphase images; possibility of reflection of histogram, due to the use of more flexible and functional tool of graphic – display of histogram (Picture.2); maintenance of automatic image segmentation in the specified amount of intensity.

Picture 2. Maintenance of automatic image segmentation with the reflection of zones of particles of powder of porous penetrating material

Picture 2. Maintenance of automatic image segmentation with the reflection of zones of particles of powder of porous penetrating material

The mounted mechanism of automation is absolutely transparent for the user and allows without excessive efforts on the program to accumulate and analyze data from many points of view, to get integral descriptions and pore distribution.

The result of the program “IMAGE EXPERT PRO” performance is received of quality and quantitative descriptions of structures. For material connoisseur in this case there can be distribution of grains according to points, percentage ratio of phases in the structure, amount of switches and their division according to size and form, analysis of textures, porosity and others. This analyzer of metallography images allows to create and keep the charts of actions performed over images, and then apply these charts to the similar images. The obtained data can be presented also as histograms, as well as tables, images, average or general data after all objects or individually on each.

As for as the innovations are considerate unlike the previous programs, it is possible to mention: facilities of work are mounted with a video camera, possibility of calibration of the optical system of the complex, dynamic mode of revision for most methods, automatic division of recovering objects, complex reflection of results, fine-tuning of the modes of conclusion of results and special difference is possibility of fully automatic formation of quality sharp image of three dimension object (Picture 3).

Picture 3. The automatic formation of quality image of a three dimension object of structure of the micro section of porous penetrating material and presentation of results

Picture 3. The automatic formation of quality image of a three dimension object of structure of the micro section of porous penetrating material and presentation of results

The substantial difference of program “VIDEOTEST VT4” from previously presented, ones where the process of segmentation is built on the principle of adaptive binarization is the division of objects according to their medium brightness (Picture 4).

Picture 4. Determinations of division of objects of image according to their medium brightness by means of the program "VIDEOTEST VT4"

Picture 4. Determinations of division of objects of image according to their medium brightness by means of the program “VIDEOTEST VT4”

The difference of this program is in possibility of determination of phase analysis of any material, marking the image of masks to determine size of pores and porosity of alloy. The specific feature of this software product is possibility to the control process of growth of thin film coverage with stable functional properties.

Many tasks of industrial control and planning require the receipt of data about the geometrical forms of objects in three-dimensional space. To solve these tasks the noncontact methods of measuring are widely used optical methods are among that most successful (Serra 1992; Stampfl 1996).

Formation of 3d-image by means of software environment of “AVIZO” comes true by imposition of flat transverse sections of appropriate range on the height of the prepared porous powder-like material (Picture 5).

Picture 5. Visualization of the received image of transversal cut of porous powder-like material :  а) 3d-image with the use of "AVIZO"; б) sciagram

Picture 5. Visualization of the received image of transversal cut of porous powder-like material :
а) 3d-image with the use of “AVIZO”; б) sciagram

The essence of the work of “AVIZO” is based on system understanding of morphology and microstructure of the pre-production model. This knowledge has a near-term value at the estimation of quality of the prepared product. For the complete and quality estimation of standard it is necessary to define and investigate the basic morphological parameters of structure, namely:

  • Determination of the amount of particles of different size and form;
  • Determination of structural defects of the standard;
  • Determination of form of pores and forms of particles;
  • Determination of general distribution of pores in a cut and on all volume;
  • Determination of general distribution of certain form particles on a perimeter and volume.

In general the quality analysis of image of finish product – porous penetrating material – is conducted to of determine such parameters of objects as a medium brightness, perimeter, area, minimum and maximal diameters, factor of the form, coefficient of form and other (Boukhair 2000; Zhang 1998). By means of other application program “SMART – EYE® it is possible to define these descriptions, necessary for a quality and quantitative estimation structures of any material, including porous (Picture 6).

Picture 6. A process of calibration of standard and introduction of the real dimension by means of the program "SMART - EYE®"

Picture 6. A process of calibration of standard and introduction of the real dimension by means of the program “SMART – EYE®”

The eventual task of metallography analysis by means of “SMART – EYE®is to count statistical treatment of the descriptions of objects, determination of mean values of these sizes got in the process of measuring, and also construction of graphic dependences for visualization of process of analysis (Picture 6).

Picture 7. Determination of form and sizes of pores of pre-production model

Picture 7. Determination of form and sizes of pores of pre-production model

In order to get more adequate estimation of the received results by means of “SMART – EYE®, binarization image must be conducted. Essence of binarization lies in consideration of enormous quantity of probable variants. In this case, binarization consists in regeneration of grey picture of micro section image in a raster black and white picture. 

Thus, programmatic products described for the metallography analysis of “PHOTOM”, “OPTIMAS”, “VIDEOTEST”, “IMAGE EXPERT PRO”, ” AVIZO”, “SMART – EYE® are effective enough to solve intricate problems of modern computer learn of materials. These software for the analysis of micro images are the universal instrument for the qualified analysis of image in science and in industry, equally irreplaceable both at the analysis of laboratory structures and at a quantitative analysis according to the Ukrainian and international standards.

References.
1. Andersson A, Holmquist F, Lindquist P, Nilsson W (2000) Analysis of film coating thickness and surface area of pharmaceutical pellets using fluorescence microscopy and image analysis, J. Pharm. Biomed. 22: 325–339.

2. Belov S, Vutiaz P, Sheleg V (1987) Porous permeable materials. Metallurgy, Moscow.

3. Bodla D, Murthy M, Garimella A (2010) Microtomography-based simulation of transport through open-cell metal foams. Numer Heat Transfer Part A; 524:527.

4. Boukhair D, Haessler R, Nourreddine A (2000) New code for digital imaging system for track measurements. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 160: 550–555.

5. Feldkamp D, Davis A, Kress E (1997) Practical cone beam algorithm J. Microsc. 185: 67–75.

6. Kereig L (1996) Practical image processing in C. World, Moskov.

7. Mandelbrot A (1982) The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Freeman, San-Francisco.

8. Maziyk A, Pulunevuch P, Rak D, Savuch S, Tymulovuch A(2005) Porous powder materials with anisotropic pore structure for the filtration of liquids and gases. Tonpik, Minsk.

9. Povstyanoy O, Zabolotnuy O, Chmil I (2004) Computer methods in metallographic analysis with applications.Scientific notes, Luck. 15: 244-25.

10. Pytianin A, Averun I (1990) Image processing in robotics. Mechanical Engineering, Moskov.

11. Serra S (1992) Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology. Academic Press, London.

12. Stampfl S, Scherer E, Gruber D, Kolednik W (1996) Determination of the fracture toughness with automatic image processing. Int. J. Frac., V.2–44: 119-121.

13. Stas S, Gavruliyk I (2000) Computer methods in metallographic analysis. Research methods and quality control of metals: V.2: 48—52.

14. Vutiaz P (1987) Porous powder materials and their products. Higher School, Minsk.

15. Whitehouse A (1994) Handbook of Surface Metrology. Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia.

16. Zhang W, Marshall H (1998) A universal algorithm for fast and automated charge state deconvolution of electrospray mass-to-charge ratio spectra. J. Am.Soc. Mass Spec.:V. 9: 225–233.
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