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Psychological aspects in education concerning on-job-safety and professional employees selection on the highly hazardous agricultural objects

Yurii Rogach
Tavria State Agrotechnological University, Melitopol, Ukraine

Field: Technical sciences
Title: Psychological aspects in education concerning on-job-safety and professional employees selection on the highly hazardous agricultural objects
Paper Type: Research Paper
City, Country: Melitopol, Ukraine
Authors: Y. Rogach
Psychology
Principles
Training
Hazardous work
Admission
Approaches

The safety work is largely influenced by the individual qualities of an employee (physiological, social, industrial). Among the psycho physiological traits should be allocated as follows: lack of capacity for the distribution and concentration, thinking, low quality care, observation, intelligence, judgment, lack of setting to work, excessive criticism to the leadership and less to ourselves, pride, arrogance, disrespect for other and so on. The basic social qualities of employees to consider when creating a safe working environment are: attitude to work, contacts with colleagues, managers and others, socio-political, socio-economic and personal factors, the level of communication, education and culture, health status, the level of satisfaction with their work, and others. The most important production qualifications of employees that affect the work safety, is the length of service and work experience. The length of service is generally related to the age of the employee. Based on the analysis of various studies concluded: the most significant impact on safety of work gives the length of service, but not the age of the employee. Secure employee actions, the creation of dangerous situations may be due to the lack of knowledge, work but not as a specialist, a change in the nature or conditions well known for many professions. To reduce the action of psycho physiological factors of danger in the workplace must be considered as a working individual, because the errors in production, and accidents are the result of the collision human qualities specific to that particular profession. To improve the safety and health of employees at work should be carried out professional psychophysiological selection for a wide range of professions. This paper considers the problem of certain categories of employees in obtaining knowledge on safety. Analysis of the psychological aspects regarding the admission staff to work with high risk is made.

1. Campbell D. (1996). Models of experiments in social psychology and applied investigations. St. Petersburg, p.391.
2. Luschenkov V., Luschenkov V., Butko D., Rogach Y, Petrov V. (2002). Methodological principle of teaching and on-job-safety propaganda. Simferopol: Business-Inform, p. 240.
3. Pechchen A. (1980). Human qualities. M.: Progress.
4. Regulations in on-job-safety 0.00-4.12-05 “Typical principle concerning studying and checking out knowledge in on-job-safety”.
5. Venda N. (1980) Perspectives of the development of operators’ psychological teaching theory. Journal in psychology, vol.1, №4, 48-68.


1. Introduction
There is an idea of activity approach on the basis of teaching process characteristics. It is developed in the native pedagogy and psychology.

Teaching is a system of cognitive activities of learners aimed at solving the educational problems.

Modern psychology based on the philosophical thesis about the role of labor in human formation, claims that material activity changes the type of behavior. However, along with material activity, a man is also characterized by the internal mental activity that is carried out by means of oral, numerical and other symbols. This activity leads to the mental development of a man and his/her personality.

Employees’ knowledge of on-job-safety training and testing, take place during the process of training, further training, learning new professional skills and qualification improvement.

An employee training for hazardous work or for work that requires special professional selection is conducted only in the educational establishments.

In the production, at least once a year, these workers take specific character and knowledge testing concerning on-job-safety, depending on the specificity of production and taking into account the requirements of norms, regulations and safety rules for specific works with highly hazardous level. Such teaching and knowledge testing is compulsory for all workers, including technical engineers employed in all above mentioned jobs.

To improve the educational process on on-job-safety psychological aspects and individual characteristics of each member of staff must be taken into account.

2. Analysis of publications
Basing on L. S. Vygotsky studies, native and soviet psychologists O. M. Leont’ev, P. Y. Galperin, D. B. El’konin, V. V. Davydov, L. V. Zankov, N. O. Menchyns’ka and others have developed the theoretical teaching principles, which have particularly beneficial effect on the development of intellectual, volitional, emotional and motivational spheres and also provide all-round education of a person.

One of the main principles of the state policy in the field of on-job-safety is teaching and systematic improvement of employees’ and Ukrainian population knowledge in the sphere of on-job-safety (Campbell D., 1996, Luschenkov V., Luschenkov V., Butko D., Rogach Y, Petrov V., 2002, Pechchen A., 1980, Venda N., 1980).

The process and types of teaching, training and knowledge testing concerning the problem of on-job-safety for all workers is laid down by NLALP 0.00-4.12-05 “Regulations on teaching and knowledge testing of on-job-safety”.

The purpose of the article is to analyze psychological aspects during teaching on-job-safety and to substantiate the purpose for dangerous job performance for workers of a certain temperament type.

3. The main part
The development of scientific and technological revolution led to practical application of psychological knowledge. Labor psychology formulates theoretical problems. In order to solve them the scientific substantiation of practical conclusions should be found. The most important of them are the psychological regularity of forming labor activity specific form and human attitude to labor, regularity of professional skills mastering, the laws of labor skills forms restructuring, laws of change of professionally important person’s peculiarities.

Mathematical psychology is very important in terms of risk theory. A wide range of experts in risk psychology believe that the share of leaders who can act in dangerous situations is no more than 0.5%. Therefore, selection, training and support of workers psychological form at the dangerous objects is an important applied problem. Statistical theory of teaching gives great opportunities in this field. The dependence of errors number on the study process time is represented by decreased exponent, the probability of correct identification approaching to saturation.

Nevertheless, dependence exists while obtaining more complex skills. When multiple jumps with saturation appeared in the case of operator’s work, this means a transition from supervising individual devices to the ability in quickly assessing the state of functional blocks.

That is why during the selection of candidates for risky professions that requires obtaining special skills it is necessary to have time not just for learning simple skills but for achieving a qualitative leap as well.

Obtaining new skills is not less important than a person’s emotional state. In an “operator-machine” system a man is more important factor which determines the reliability of these systems. From time to time, there are situations, which require human interference in a process of work with complex systems. That is why in this case psychological characteristics of the operator have an important role, whereas individuality of a person is determined by its temperament.

According to the type of temperament there are 4 types of people: choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic. If it is possible to form a student group according to the type of temperament, subsequently it is better to use such approaches (Luschenkov V., Luschenkov V., Butko D., Rogach Y, Petrov V., 2002):
1. “Trust but check”, for the reason that sanguine has such advantages as: cheerfulness, enthusiasm, sensitivity, etc. But his disadvantages include: the tendency to conceit, the absence of concentration, frivolity, superficiality, unreliability, a tendency to make a promise without keeping it. He requires control;
2. “No minute of rest”, since choleric has the following pros: energy, enthusiasm, passion, mobility, purposeful; alongside with such cons as: hot temper, aggression, lack of restraint, impatience, conflict, the ability to demoralize a team;
3. “Do not hurry up” because phlegmatic has the following pluses: stability, constancy, activity, patience, self-control, reliability; although his cons are: slow down activity, indifference, thick-skinned, lack of emotions in relations. Don’t hurry him, he controls time on his own and makes everything in time;
4. “Do no harm” knowing that melancholic’s pros are: high sensitivity, humanity, kindness, an ability to compassion; while his cons are: low efficiency, suspicion, detachment, shyness. Do not scream or make a pressure on him, don’t give different instructions.

During the staff selection for risky jobs it is essential to consider such psychological characteristics of a human as:
1. A nervous (but coward) man can work when fast reaction is necessary (it means ability to make decisions quickly but not a physiological reaction). Nervous person is good in situations when certain variants of behavior in case of danger are strictly set, if not the operator begins to make thoughtless decisions (further these decisions may be inadequate to the specified situation). In such case the nervous man may be less useful;
2. A man of mood, who is not nervous, must be extremely careful in order to take effective action in case of danger. Carelessness (the absence of fear even when there is a need to avoid danger) is unexcused for such person and can lead to inertia;
3. Responsible man (man of action). His carelessness doesn’t particularly prevent from doing his duty at the first stage, when removing danger actions haven’t begun to reveal results yet. This is because the impact of emotions on informational performance (the intensity of labor) of “responsible man” is weak. However, at the second stage, especially when emotional situation is stabilized, careless man loses to careful man. The difference in informational performance between the man of mood and the man of action disappears at the second stage (during the successful operation on danger removal) when emotional situation is stabilized;
4. Careful phlegmatic is mostly needed to remove long – term menace. Probably management of operations on long-term dangers removal should be entrusted to such person.

In order to react on hazard opportunely and correctly and to prevent dangerous situations, it is not enough to have necessary emotional parameters for operator to solve this problem. He also must obtain all indispensable knowledge about the way of action in case of threat.

Thus the problem of the optimal organization of teaching process of complex systems management (for objects with high danger level) arises.

Based on the studies (Venda N., 1980) it is possible to conclude that: 1. to get a hundred percent reliability of performed work, it is not necessary a hundred percent memorizing of material, if new knowledge is based on others; 2. the increasing number of ways for teaching course helps in reducing significantly the quantity of material that should be mechanically memorized.

That is, it helps to reduce the number of repetitions during the training and in this way to increase the productivity of operator who is learning. In this case the volume of work connected with training also decreases.

It should be stressed that time which is necessary to achieve the “leap of understanding” should be taken as one of the main criteria for employees’ selection and assessment of their trainings results. A person that has the ability to make this “leap” quickly, can quickly fill the gaps in his/her education, and well adapt to changing technologies and methods.

4. Сonclusions
According to the NLALP 0.00-4.12-05 the access to work is prohibited for the person, who hasn’t passed training, instruction and testing on on-job-safety. In this context and taking into account the individual nervous system peculiarities of every employee it is compulsory to carry out deep analysis of individual’s suitability for a work with high risk of danger and his ability to cope with training on-job-safety. For that reason, it is necessary to develop and implement the approaches given above.

References
1. Campbell D. (1996). Models of experiments in social psychology and applied investigations. St. Petersburg, p.391.
2. Luschenkov V., Luschenkov V., Butko D., Rogach Y, Petrov V. (2002). Methodological principle of teaching and on-job-safety propaganda. Simferopol: Business-Inform, p. 240.
3. Pechchen A. (1980). Human qualities. M.: Progress.
4. Regulations in on-job-safety 0.00-4.12-05 “Typical principle concerning studying and checking out knowledge in on-job-safety”.
5. Venda N. (1980). Perspectives of the development of operators’ psychological teaching theory. Journal in psychology, vol.1, №4, 48-68.