Ludmyla Moskalyova, Yuri Shevchenko, Oksana Kirilina
Melitopol state pedagogical University named after Bohdan Khmelnitskiy, Melitopol, Ukraine
Paper Type: The problem in pre-profile training of secondary school students in Ukrainian teachers’ innovational activities during totalitarian lawlessness
City, Country: Melitopol, Ukraine
Authors: L. Moskalyova, Y. Shevchenko, O. Kirilina
Differentiation in education
The manuscript deals with the problems of pre-profile education at the beginning of the Soviet Union. It shows the system of education in labor schools, their curriculum, subjects and the main principles of professional education. In the article it is considered the great experience of a scientist and a teacher S. Siropolko. Also it gives the main principles of pre-profile education in Ukraine during 1920-1940 and uncovers the shortage of the system of students’ preparation. Based on the archive materials and scientific works the article shows that nowadays it is impossible to involve school to political and economical affairs not taking into account the traditions of Ukrainian people. Since curricula and textbooks are becoming distorted students cannot apprehend the sense of given information for their personal development and future vital functioning. The authors make a conclusion that the process of pre-profile education of secondary school students should be based on educational principles and be directed to students’ educational achievements, their harmonious development and be adapted to their individual capabilities and skills. The following conclusions about the system of pre-profile education are widely discovered.
1. Gera R (2008) Professional socialization of students during pre-profile preparation. Dissertation. Belgrade state University
2. Danilenko V, Kravchenko A (2000) Teacher, critic, social activist (1874-1938). Kiyv
3. Kravtsov S (2007) Theory and practice of the organization of school education in the schools of the Russian Federation. Dissertation. Institute content and teaching methods of Russian Academy of Education, Moscow
4. Krivich S, Bukin N (2008) Psychological support pre-profile training: Instructor's Manual. St. Petersburg
5. Pushkina OV (2009) Professional self-determination of school students in the professional educational conditions. Bulletin TSPU. Issue 1 (79).
6. Repressed Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Political repression of the priests of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (1919-1938). From the archives of the NKVD KGB GPU: Scientific and Documentary magazine (2005) Part 1, Issue 1/2 (24/25).
7. Sukhomlinska OV (2005) Ukrainian pedagogy of personalities: the twentieth century. Vol. 2, Kiyv
8. Siropolko S (2001) History of Education in Ukraine. Kiyv
9. Shapoval U (2001) Ukraine XX Century: People and Events in the context of the difficult history. Kiyv
10. Vyazemsky E (2007) Profile of study and life: from the traditional model of school to pre-profile training and specialized education. http://his.1september.ru/article.php?ID=200700205 Accesed 14 December 2013
Today the interest to the historical and pedagogical issues in academic and teaching community greatly increased due to several reasons. These are the discovery of the confidential archival data, emancipation of the scientists’ opinions, review and new interpretation of the traditional problems of the modern school, opening possibilities for unbiased coverage of historical and educational facts, events, phenomena, for ideological reasons, which weren’t be able to be the subject of research in the Soviet times. Modern educators understand that a comprehensive understanding of emerging issues related to the choice of the profile of further education school students (pre-profile training) is necessary to understand the progressive ideas of the past in today’s terms, as these issues are brought to the teaching of science and the practice of the early schools’ opening. The history of education in recent years is rather innovative, since it has been creating a solid foundation for the educational theory’s development, the formation of pedagogical thinking of future generations. Since changing, the goals of the historical-educational science, as well as the needed forbidden or forgotten investigations are more accessible, then we can establish the scientists and educators and practitioners’ great steps to more understanding the overall picture of the issue of pre-profile training of the school students to historical and pedagogical process.
Systematization, analysis and synthesis of innovative activity of Ukrainian teachers as S. Siropolko and V. Durdukivsky, whose work in the Soviet era were banned.
For the investigation we used a set of general and specific methods such as retrospective analysis and systematization of archival sources, educational literature on pre-profile training in the educational practices of Ukrainian people, summarizing the scientific literature on the choice of profile education secondary school students, induction, deduction, synthesis, comparison and confrontation of ideas, concepts, pedagogical theories and so on.
The works of Stephan Anisimovich Siropolko (1872-1959) during the totalitarian tyranny were not known in Ukraine, and that is why they were not included into the academic circulation, are currently of major interest, in particular, interesting challenges of his ideas concerning organizational and pedagogical conditions for the development of students according to their future professional interests. For example, in the work “Education in the Soviet Ukraine”, which was published in Warsaw (1934), it was considered the official materials that provided the most important information about the school system after the revolution in 1917. Also, the famous scientist admitted that the Ukrainian government that arose from the 10th day of June 1917 on the basis of the first universal of Ukrainian Central Rada immediately started to develop a unified school, as they planned a new system of school education in Ukraine. S. Siropolko referred to the key documents, whichwere dealing with the school system, that was “The Unified Labor School”, which was adopted in September 12, 1918 the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (Shapoval 2001), “Advisor Social Education” (1921), “Temporary regulations on child care social education in the USSR” (1922) (Siropolko 2001). As the main goal of social education of the children was the collection, protection and security (it was approximately about a million homeless children or semi-orphans in Ukraine), but the same character of organization of education was different than in the Soviet educational system. The social school education in the educational system was a scheme, where, according to the project of G. Grinko, the labor seven-year school was divided into two grades: the 1stfour-year grade is from 8 to 12 years and the 2nd three-year grade is from 12 to 15 years (Siropolko 2001).
Considering the topic of our research we will focus on the main ideas and positions that were formulated by S. Siropolko according to the second three years grade of seven years labor school (students’ age is 12-15 years old). The famous scientist traced out that the main school system had been supplemented variously all the time because of the appearance of the new types of schools such as worker-peasant education (workers’ faculties, factory schools, peasant youth schools, etc.).
Also the scientist proved that since 1920 it was a discussion for the organization of the labor school inUkraine. Thus, representatives of the USSR People’s Commissariat of Education claimed that there could not be any labor in common, so there could be only the specific one, that is why it was necessary to build a school career not on the basis of secondary but vocational schools. With the help of statistics, S. Siropolko showed that in schools of that time there were different problems. In particular, he pointed out that the seven grade school urban children were much more privileged, rather than those who lived in rural areas, more than a third seven-grade school students of urban schools were the children of employees and members of the so-called free professions, not the worker-peasant class, parents who at the time belonged to the “bourgeois” and “kulaks” groups, had to forge documents just to obtain a place for their children in school, which was officially declared compulsory and free of charge, but the fee was still for 122,598 students (statistics for 1928).
After a day of NEP (reconstructive day), the People’s Commissariat of Education moved differentiation seven-grade schools. School students in cities began to acquire an industrial skills, and in rural areas – agricultural ones. Reorganization of the seven-grade schools to the factory seven grade schools, and then, to the factory ten grade schools, according to S. Siropolko, in 1929 took the character of “shock” task (Siropolko 2001). Also the scientist mentioned about another type of labor school –the school of peasant youth. But they are not part of the review of the subject of our investigation, because these schools were aimed to educate peasant youth from 15 to 18 years old.
S. Siropolko sharply criticized so-called “complex method” when instead of real subjects the People’s Commissariat of Education proclaimed only a set of concrete objects and phenomena linked organically to meet the needs of life study of the topic. Under this method, in which the population negatively reacted because the children could not digest and acquire formal knowledge, it was declared the other “the so-called method of projects”, which generally led to a decline in schools (Siropolko 2001). Also scientist criticized brigade-laboratory method when a separate theme is learned by a number of students (5-10 people), leading to distortions in the form of depersonalization in the classroom, to reduce the role of the teacher and student neglecting.
S. Siropolko also highlighted the following problems:
1) involving schools in political and economic affairs without traditions of the Ukrainian people through distorted curricula and textbooks revolutionary proletarian and communist internationalist spirit and their adaptation to the plan of collectivization of agriculture;
2) lack of quality education in many schools, which caused great dissatisfaction of the workers and peasants;
3) hesitation in the meaning between professionalism and polytechnic, the lack of a clear definition of the term “polytechnics”;
4) production in schools and enterprises were not adapted to the characteristics of the local region;
5) lack of equipment in school workshops, which is why the idea of the school polytechnics came to applications, sewing, weaving, which was made with the same samples and of course that situation didn’t allow to develop schools;
6) “polytechnics” came to acquainting children with the practical skills, and most of the studying had been instructed just using the words “without any demonstration or exercise, being the same verbal school, as the pre-revolutionary one” (Shapoval 2001);
7) organization of the separate housing for students in the barracks from their families, deepening military and defense work in schools, involving children from 10 to 15 years of communist children’s movement (“komdyt ruh” – command children movement), etc.
In addition to these imperfections related to organizational and pedagogical conditions of the students of the labor schools, we can add S. Siropolko’s expressions of ill-treatment to students by the organizers of education, as they regarded these children, as the working force. Thus, the scientist quoted the facts that some schools even joined tobacco factories, breweries; practical training of students of some urban schools came to wipe locomotives with oakum, rural schools children had to prepare food for pigs, to bring slops from the camp kitchen, etc. (Siropolko 2001)
The new school curriculum for 1930/31 year for the second concern had such subjects as social studies, geography, Ukrainian language and literature, Russian language and literature, chemistry, physics, science, mathematics, German, graphic charter, music education, physical education, social and political work, collective farming, work in the studio, working in agriculture. In addition to, the school children of the second group had to take part in such clubs as political, literary, natural scientific, dramatic, musical and vocal arts, cooperative, sports, and military. However, S. Siropolko concluded that the largest number of clubs at the time accounted more students in the dramatic and musical, sports and political clubs as that time the military clubs took the last place.
S. Siropolko supported the returning recognition of some subjects in the educational system in Ukraine, and also the value of formal and general knowledge, as well as introducing the idea of productive labor, which had a children’s tendency to this or that profession. But, as he pointed out these changes had the contradictions with the principle of polytechnic in schools “polytechnics must run through all the sciences, it has to influence the choice of materials in such subjects as physics, chemistry, natural sciences and social sciences” (Siropolko 2001). Polytechnic school, in the opinion of S. Siropolko, had to rebuild the educational process, as one of the key points raising the production surroundings such as factories plants and collective farms. But the process which had to start as an organic link of schools with life and reality, had, as we have seen, lots of the shortcomings listed above.
The director of the first Ukrainian school in London, and later-labor school named after Taras Shevchenko, a famous Ukrainian scientist Vladimir Fedorovich Durdukivsky (1874-1937) emphasized that his school was the first Ukrainian institution that provided secondary education. It had selected teaching staff, which instilled the value of education principles, including history, culture, art and traditions of the Ukrainian people, ideology, labor, collective orientation, were subordinated to the main problem of youth – its fulfillment. New rules for the time activities and educational technologies were innovative. They include children self-government, science club with dozens of clubs, children cooperative (school as self-financing institution), children rooms, children art museum, etc. Teaching pupils, their research work were based on the following methods of the educational process as complex, laboratory, brigade (chainable) project methods. The main ideas implemented in V. Durdukivsky’s school represented a significant saturation of national, ideologically shaping the process of learning content itself, education of all the skills and abilities of students (social, physical, intellectual, aesthetic, etc.), formation of a new content and methods of work in school, its approach to the outside life, development of the initiatives, activities and creativity of children through their involvement in universal ideals. School had humanitarian incline, the organization of physical education and music was quite new, there was exemplary children’s choir.
Modern scientists who were engaged in the detailed investigation of the issues related to the name of the leader, pointed out that his work were under taboo until recent times (Danilenko and Kravchenko 2000, Suhomlynska 2005). Thus, O. Suhomlynska pointed out that after 1937 in pedagogical manuscripts an outstanding teacher had never been mentioned even in the negative context (Suhomlynska 2005). Consequently, his organizational and teaching activities were not supported by the Bolsheviks, but only aggression. This aggression resulted in his involvement in the trial of the “Union for the Liberation of Ukraine”.
Thus, according to contemporary historian U. Shapoval, who worked with archival documents, which aren’t available to the public, aggressive behavior was dictated by Stalin’s Kremlin strategic position not only in Ukraine but also to a great extent by the resistance to the Communist regime, which in different ways was demonstrated by Ukrainians, not only physical but also mental potential, which at any moment could be used (and frequently used) against Moscow’s political, economic and spiritual dictates (Shapoval 2001). For participating in the trial, which intention was to caution the interpretation of Ukrainian intellectuals “Ukrainianization” as “increasing autonomy from Moscow” there were selected 45 people. From archival documents it is known that the dock were a former chairman of the Socialist-Federalist member of the Presidium UAS (Ukrainian Academy of Sciences) Sergiy Efremov, Kiyvan professor Vsevolod Gantsov, the former Prime Minister of UNR (Ukrainian National Republic) Andriy Nikovsky, the former Prime Minister of Directory of UNR Vladimir Chekhivsky and his brother priest Nicholas Chekhivsky, a writer Lyudmila Starytska-Chernjakhivska and the director of the labor school #1 Vladimir Durdukivsky. As V. Durdukivsky came from the family of priest, his sentence was significantly degraded as a person who was considered “socially uncertain” (Scientific and Documentary magazine 2005).
Thus, V. Durdukivsky opposed school work by transient political slogans on labor school, and defended the idea of immutable principles of teaching, increasing the success of educational work of students, their harmonious development, effort and ability.
Modern scholars differ in opinion interpretation of the term “pre-profile training” that affects most content and the learning process of students in high school. This term is considered as a system of specific activities that help students to choose subjects for further studying and profession (Kravtsov 2007, Krivich and Bukin 2008, Pushkina 2009). Other authors, such as R. Hera (Gera 2008), considering the pre-profile training as a process carried out under professional socialization, while E. Vyazemsky – how to prepare a comprehensive selection of education (Vyazemsky 2007). We provide a definition of pre-profile training as a process that aims at the formation of values and personal qualities of specific competences of students in the second stage, the development of a strategic vision for the future of life from the beginning of differentiation of their interests, aptitudes and personal opportunities. This process is included in the system of specific activities of the older generation and is aimed at a conscious choice to future generations the profile of training and qualifications that are needed for all areas of society.
The issue of pre-profile training of students in the heritage of S. Siropolkoand V. Durdukivsky are currently in significant interest. Updating their heritage in this area allows us to get to the following conclusions:
– school involvement in political and economic affairs without traditions of the Ukrainian people is unacceptable because curricula and textbooks become distortive, and the students can catch the different sense of knowledge for their personal development and future life, the development of society, etc.;
– lack of technical support for pre-profile training of students leads to a purely theoretical style of teaching in the school (verbal school), because of lack of the new tools that could greatly enliven the learning process and generate interest to working professions;
– the process of preparing pre-profile high school students should be based on educational principles and aims to improve educational achievement of students, their harmonious development, leading to their individual capabilities, skills, giving the prospects of regional and national development.
1. Gera R (2008) Professional socialization of students during pre-profile preparation. Dissertation. Belgrade state University.
2. Danilenko V, Kravchenko A (2000) Teacher, critic, social activist (1874-1938). Kiyv.
3. Kravtsov S (2007) Theory and practice of the organization of school education in the schools of the Russian Federation. Dissertation. Institute content and teaching methods of Russian Academy of Education, Moscow.
4. Krivich S, Bukin N (2008) Psychological support pre-profile training: Instructor’s Manual. St. Petersburg.
5. Pushkina OV (2009) Professional self-determination of school students in the professional educational conditions. Bulletin TSPU. Issue 1 (79).
6. Repressed Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Political repression of the priests of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (1919-1938). From the archives of the NKVD KGB GPU: Scientific and Documentary magazine (2005) Part 1, Issue ½ (24/25).
7. Sukhomlinska OV (2005) Ukrainian pedagogy of personalities: the twentieth century. Vol. 2, Kiyv.
8. Siropolko S (2001) History of Education in Ukraine. Kiyv.
9. Shapoval U (2001) Ukraine XX Century: People and Events in the context of the difficult history. Kiyv.
10. Vyazemsky E (2007) Profile of study and life: from the traditional model of school to pre-profile training and specialized education. http://his.1september.ru/article.php?ID=200700205 Accesed 14 December 2013.